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In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Fiqh As-Sunnah
Ihram

RESTRICTIONS OF IHRAM:
The Law Giver forbids certain things for a muhrim after he dons the ihram garb:

 1. Sexual intercourse and all matters leading to it such as kissing, touching, or talking with one's wife about intercourse or related matters.
2. Committing sins that cause a man to deviate from the path of obedience to Allah.
3. Disputing, arguing or fighting with companions, servants or others.

 The basis of this prohibition are the words of Allah: "Let there be no obscenity nor wickedness nor wrangling in the Hajj" (Qur'an 2.197). Both Bukhari and Muslim reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "He who performs Hajj, committing no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling, will return home free of sins as the day his mother bore him."

 4. Wearing any sewn clothes, such as a shirt, hooded robes, cloak, underpants or wrapping anything around the head, a cap or a fez, etc. Likewise one is not permitted to wear clothes dyed with a nice fragrant dye or to wear shoes or sewn slippers.

 Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "A person in a state of ihram is not allowed to wear a sewn shirt, a turban, a hooded robe, underpants, a cloth that has been dyed with sweet smelling fragrance (such as saffron), shoes or sewn slippers, unless one is unable to find regular unsewn slippers, then one may wear his shoes provided one cuts them down to the ankles." This was reported by Bukhari and Muslim. There is agreement among the scholars that these restrictions apply to men only.

 As for a woman pilgrim, she may wear all of the above. But she is forbidden to use perfumed clothes, a veil that covers the face, and gloves.

 Ibn 'Umar reported: "Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) forbade women pilgrims from wearing gloves, veils, and clothes dyed with saffron or warse. (A sweet smelling plant that was used to dye clothes yellow) Besides these, they may wear anything else, any color, silk clothes, ornaments, trousers, or a shirt or shoes." (Reported by Abu Daw'ud, Al-Baihaqi and Al-Hakim, with a sound chain of authorities)

 Bukhari reported that 'Aishah wore a dress that was dyed with +usfur (Usfur: safflower, the red dyestuff prepared from its flower heads) while she was in a state of ihram, and she said: "A woman must neither wear a veil to cover her face, nor wear clothes that are dyed with saffron or other fragrant dyeing material." Jabir said: "I do not consider 'usfur a scent."

 'Aishah held that there is no harm for women pilgrims in wearing ornaments, black or rose-colored clothes and shoes.

 Bukhari and Ahmad have reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "A pilgrim woman must neither cover her face nor wear gloves." This proves that a woman in the state of ihram should not cover her face and hands. The scholars, however, say that there is no harm if she covered her face with something other than a veil. She may also use an umbrella or similar item as a screen between men and herself. But if she is afraid of tempting others she must cover her face.

 'Aishah said: "Men on camels used to pass by us while we were with the Prophet (peace be upon him) and in the state of ihram. We would cover our faces with our gowns when they passed by us, and then uncover them again." This is reported by Abu Daw'ud and Ibn Majah. 'Ata, Malik, AthThawri, Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq hold that it permissible for women to cover their faces in the state of ihram.

A Man Without Garb or Shoes for Ihram:
A person who has no proper garb and shoes for Hajj may wear whatever is available to him. Ibn 'Abbas reported that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) delivered a sermon at 'Arafah saying, "A Muslim (pilgrim) who finds no suitable garb (for ihram), may wear trousers, and if he finds no suitable slippers, he may wear shoes." (This is in the case of a man who finds these things are either not available, or he has no extra money to buy them) This is reported by Ahmad, Bukhari and Muslim. In Ahmad's narration from 'Ata ibn Dinar we read that Aba Al-Sha'sha informed him that Ibn 'Abbas heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) saying, "He who finds no garb (for ihram), but has trousers, he may wear them, and he who finds no (suitable) slippers but has shoes, he may wear them." At this I (Aba Al-Sha'sha) asked him: "And did he say anything about cutting them?" Ibn 'Abbas said: "No."

 Ahmad, therefore, holds that a muhrim who finds no proper garb or slippers may wear his trousers and shoes, as shown by the hadith of Ibn 'Abbas, without being required to make any atonement for doing so. (Ibn Qayyim also prefers this view)

Contracting a Marriage, or Acting on Behalf of Others, or Acting as a Guardian for Someone:
Such a marriage contract is invalid, null and void, and is not binding as reported in a hadith transmitted by Muslim and others. It is reported that 'Uthman ibn 'Affan said: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "A muhrim must not contract marriage, nor help others contract marriage, nor get engaged for marriage." Malik, Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq are also of the same opinion. They hold that it is not permissible for a muhrim to contract a marriage and regard any marriage thus contracted as invalid. Tirmidhi has also reported it but without the words "nor get engaged for marriage." Tirmidhi considers this a sound hadith and remarks that the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) practiced it.

 Some of the reports that say the Prophet (peace be upon him) "married Maimunah while he was a muhrim" are contrary to the report transmitted by Muslim that "he married her while he was no longer in the state of ihram."

 Tirmidhi said: "There is disagreement concerning the marriage of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to Maimunah, for he married her on his way to Makkah. Some said: 'He married her before he put on ihram, but the news of his marriage became known while he was in the state of ihram. Later he consummated his marriage with her in Saraf, on the road to Makkah, after he was free from the restrictions of ihram.' Hanafi scholars, however, hold that a muhrim may contract a marriage, because in the state of ihram what is forbidden is not marriage with a woman, but only the consummation of marriage. Contracting a marriage is permissible, but intercourse is forbidden.

Clipping Nails, Shaving, Cutting or Removing Hair by any Means, from the Head or any Part of the Body:
Allah says: "And do not shave your heads until the offering reaches the place of sacrifice." (Qur'an 2.196)

 There is consensus among the scholars that a person in the state of ihram is forbidden to clip his fingernails without any genuine excuse. However, if a nail is broken, one may remove it without incurring any penalty.

 Removing the hair is permitted, if it becomes bothersome. In such a case one must pay atonement, except for the removal of hair of the eye if it bothers him. (The Maliki scholars hold there is a penalty for removing hair of the eyes) Allah the Almighty says: "And if any of you is ill, or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving), he should in compensation either fast, or feed the poor, or offer sacrifice." (Qur'an 2.196) This will be discussed later.

Using Perfume on Body or Clothes by a Man or Woman:
Ibn 'Umar reported that 'Umar smelled the pleasant smell of perfume coming from Mu'awiyah while the latter was in the state of ihram. 'Umar commanded him: "Get back, and wash it off. I have heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) saying: 'A pilgrim must be unkempt and without any perfume." This is reported by Al-Bazzar with a sound chain.

 The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Wash away the perfume that you are wearing." He repeated this thrice. The body of a deceased muhrim should neither be perfumed during the washing, nor any perfume be applied to his shroud. (Abu Hanifah, however, holds it is permissible) Concerning a muhrim dying in the state of ihram, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Do not cover his head, nor perfume his body, because on the Day of Resurrection he will be raised with talbiyah on his lips." There is no harm, however, if some of the perfume used by a muhrim on his body or clothes before entering the state of ihram is left over.

 It is permissible, however, to smell the things that are not planted for their scent such as apples and quince. These plants are similar to other plants that are not planted for their scent, nor is it extracted from them.

 As for the perfume that one may acquire from touching the Ka'bah, there is no harm. Sa'id bin Mansur reported that Salih bin Kaisan said: "I have seen Anas bin Malik in the state of ihram, while some perfume from the Ka'bah was rubbed on his Hajj garb, but he did not wash it off." 'Ata said: "Such a person does not have to wash it off, nor does he need to make any atonement." The Shafi'i school holds that if someone purposely did so (applied perfume), or was accidently perfumed, and he could wash it off, but he did not do so, he would be committing a wrong for which he will have to pay a penalty."

Wearing Clothes Dyed with Scented Material:
There is agreement among scholars that wearing a Hajj garb dyed with a scented material is disallowed unless it is washed and its smell removed. Nafi'i reported from Ibn 'Umar that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Do not wear (while in the state of ihram) any clothes dyed with warse or saffron without washing them." This is reported by Ibn Abdul Barr and At-Tahawi.

 Wearing scented clothes is disliked for those in leading positions in life, because the masses may imitate them and wear scented clothes which are not permitted. Malik has reported from Nafi' that he heard Aslam, the freed-slave of 'UmarbinAI-Khattab, sayingtoAbdullahbin 'Umar: "'UmarbinAI-Khattab saw Talhah bin Obaidullah wearing a dyed garb in the state of ihram. At this 'Umar said to him: 'O Talhah, what is this garb!' Talhah replied: 'O Chief of the Faithful, this is dyed with a reddish dye (that has no smell)." 'Umar said: "O People! You are leaders for others. If a layman saw you wearing this garb he would say: "I saw Talhah bin Obaidullah wearing dyed garb in the state of ihram. O People! Do not wear any of these dyed garbs."

 There is no harm, however, in using some scent in cooking or drinks when its taste, color or smell is eliminated. If a muhrim partakes of it, he does not have to make any atonement. The Shafi'i school holds that partaking of such food or drink makes an atonement necessary if the smell persists. The Hanafi school is of the view that that there is no penalty on him, because he did not partake of it to enjoy its perfume.

Engaging in Hunting:
A muhrim may fish, eat sea game, or mention any kind of sea food. It is forbidden, however, for a muhrim to hunt on land, by killing or by slaughtering. It is also forbidden for a muhrim to point it out if it is visible, or indicate its place if it is invisible, or scare it off. It is also forbidden for him to spoil eggs of animals living on land. Buying, selling them, or milking these animals is also forbidden in the state of ihram. The Qur'an says: "Lawful to you is the pursuit of water game and its use for food - for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel; but forbidden is the pursuit of land game - as long as you are in the Sacred Precincts or in pilgrim garb.'' (Qur'an 5.96)

Eating Game-Meat:
A muhrim is forbidden to partake of any land game prepared for his sake, at his suggestion or with his help. Abu Qatadah reported that Allah' s Messenger (peace be upon him) went for Hajj and they also went with him. The Prophet (peace be upon him) dispatched a group, including Abu Qatadah, and told them: "Follow the seashore until we meet again." All of them except Abu Qatadah were in the state of ihram. On the way, they saw a herd of zebras. Abu Qatadah attacked them and killed a female zebra. They all ate of its meat but said: "Is it permissible for us to partake of this land game in the state of ihram?" Then they carried the rest of the meat to the Prophet (peace be upon him), and told him the whole story. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to them: "Did any one of you ask Abu Qatadah to attack the herd, or point it out to him?" They said: "No." He said, "Then, you may eat what is left of the quarry." This is reported by Bukhari and Muslim.

 A muhrim may eat the meat of a game which is neither killed by him, nor for him, nor pointed out by him to someone else, and in the hunting of which he did not help others. Al-Muttalib reported from Jabir that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "The (eating of) land game is lawful for you in the state of ihram provided you yourselves do not kill it but it is killed for you (by someone else)." This is reported by Ahmad and Tirmidhi, who said: "Jabir's hadith is explanatory, but we do not know the narrator who reported it from Jabir to Al-Muttalib."

 Some of the schol;lrs follow this principle and consider that eating meat of land game is lawful for a muhrim if he does not hunt it, nor is it hunted for his sake. Ahmad, lshaq, Malik and the majority of scholars hold a similar view. Ash-Shafi'i said: "This is the best and the most correct hadith reported on this issue."

 The eating of a land game hunted by a muhrim or for a muhrim is unlawful for him, whether it is done with or without his permission. But, if someone else who is not in the state of ihram, hunted it for himself, and offered or sold some of it to a muhrim, he is permitted to partake of it.

 Abdur-Rahman bin 'Uthman At-Taimi reported: "We went for Hajj with Talhah bin Obaidullah. While we were in the state of ihram, some meat of birds was given to Talhah. He was asleep. Some of us ate of this meat, while others refrained. When Talhah woke up (and was told about this) he approved of those who had eaten it and said: "We used to eat such meat while we were with Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him). (Reported by Muslim and Ahmad) Other ahadith forbid a muhrim eating the meat of a land game, such as the one reported from As-Sa'ab bin Jathamah al-Laithee which says: "Someone presented meat of a zebra to the Prophet (peace be upon him), while he was in the area known as Al-Abwa or Bawaddan. The Prophet (peace be upon him) declined it, but when he saw marks of disquiet on the presenter's face, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to him: "We declined (your) present only because we are in the state of ihram."

 Considering the assumption behind declining the meat--that it was hunted for the sake of those who were in the state of ihram--these ahadith can be reconciled. The people who were not in the state of ihram meant to hunt for those who were in the state of ihram. Ibn Abdul Barr said: "The argument of those holding this view is that it is supported by sound ahadith on this subject. When taken in this sense we find no contradiction or disagreement in these ahadith. All Sunan should be interpreted in this manner. They do not contradict or disagree with each other when applied in their proper contexts. Ibn Al Qayyim prefers this opinion, and says: "All the traditions of the Companions approve of this course."

Penalty for Violating Sanctity of Ihram:
A muhrim who for a genuine reason is compelled to violate any of the restrictions of ihram, like shaving his head, wearing sewn clothes because of cold or heat or something else, with the exception of having sexual intercourse with his spouse, (For details on this see the following pages) he may do so, but he will have to slaughter a sheep, or feed six needy people, (Each needy person should be given at least the equivalent of half sa in measure) or fast three days to atone for it.

 Violation of restrictions of ihram other than sexual intercourse does not invalidate Hajj or 'Umrah. Sexual intercourse with one's wife invalidates Hajj or 'Umrah. Abdur Rahman bin Abi Laila reported from K'ab bin 'Ujrah that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) passed by him while in Hudaibiyah and said, "Are the lice in your head bothering you?" He said, "Yes." The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Shave your head and slaughter a sheep, or fast three days or give a measure of three sa ' of dates to six needy people." (Reported by Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Daw'ud) In another report the same narrator says: "Lice infested my hair and bothered me, while I was with Allah ' s Messenger (peace be upon him) during Hudaibiyah. It got so bad that I was afraid of losing my sight. Then Allah, the Almighty revealed the Qur'anic verse (2.196) "And if any of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving) (he should) in compensation either fast or feed the poor or otfer sacrifice." Upon this Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) called me and said: "Shave your head, or fast three days or feed six poor persons one farq (A measure commonly used in Madinah at the time of the Prophet, it is roughly equivalent to sixteen Iraqi rotl) of raisins, or slaughter a sheep." So I shaved my head and slaughtered a sheep."

 With regard to penalty Ash-Shafi'i makes no distinction between a muhrim who is compelled to violate ihram by some genuine need, and one who does so without any genuine cause. In either case penalty must be paid to atone tor violation. Abu Hanifah holds that a person who violates the ihram restrictions without genuine cause must offer a sheep to compensate for his violation, if he can afford it. A person who cannot afford this does not have to make any atonement as mentioned above.

Clipping Some Hair Only:
'Ata reported that if a person in the state of ihram pulled off three hairs or more, he must slaughter a sheep in compensation for that. This was reported by Sa'id bin Mansur. Ash-Shafi'i also reported from 'Ata that if a muhrim pulled one hair he must give one mudd (A dry measure), and for two hairs two mudds to the needy, but if he pulled more than two hairs then he must offer a sheep in sacrifice.

Rubbing Oil on the Body in the State of Ihram:
It is said in Al Musawwa that according to Abu Hanifah if a muhrim massages any part of his body with pure oil or vinegar he must slaughter a sheep in expiation for it. The Shafi'i school is of the view that if a muhrim used unperfumed oil on his head or beard, then he must slaughter a sheep, but there is no penalty if he uses it on any other parts of his body.

Wearing Sewn Clothes or Applying Perfume by Mistake or in Ignorance:
A muhrim who wears a sewn garment or uses perfume by mistake or through forgetfulness or ignorance of their inadmissibility incurs no penalty.

 Ya'la bin Umayyah reported that a man came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) while he was at Al-Ji ranah. The man was wearing a cloak and both his head and beard were dyed and perfumed. He said: "O Allah's Messenger! I declared my intention for an 'Umrah, but I did what you see!" The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to him: "Wash your hair and beard, and take off your cloak, and do in your 'Umrah what you should do in your Hajj.'' (Reported by the Group except Ibn Majah)

 Bukhari reported that 'Ata said: "If a muhrim uses perfume or wears sewn clothes, forgetfully or unknowingly, he incurs no penalty, nor is he required to make any atonement." This is different however, from the case of killing a game - unknowingly or forgetfully - for which a muhrim must slaughter a sheep in compensation, because it involves a monetary guarantee. In matters relating to security of property, knowledge and ignorance, forgetfulness and intention, are all the same, as it is in the cases of guarantee pertaining to people' s property.

Sexual Intercourse Nullifies Hajj:
Ali, 'Umar and Abu Hurairah issued a verdict concerning a man who had sexual intercourse with his wife in the state of ihram. In this verdict they said: "They both must complete their Hajj, but must also make another Hajj the following year and slaughter an animal."

 Abu Al-'Abbas At-Tabari said: "If a muhrim had sexual intercourse with his spouse before the first tahallul* from ihram, regardless of whether it was before or after 'Arafah, it will invalidate his Hajj. Such a person, however, must continue performing the rest of his Hajj rites. He must slaughter a camel and make up for his Hajj the following year."

 If the wife was in the state of ihram and she accepted what her husband did, she must continue the performance of Hajj, but must also make it up the following year, and besides, according to the majority of the scholars, must also offer a sacrifice. According to 'Ata some scholars hold that the husband and wife may offer only one sacrifice.

 In his commentary on hadith, Sharh Al-Sunnah, Al-Baghawi said - and this is the more famous of the two sayings of Ash-Shafi'i - that a man is required to pay the penalty for sexual intercourse on a day in Ramadan. Such a couple should keep apart (Doing so is mandatory according to Ahmad and Malik, but the Hanafi and Shafi'i schools take it as a recommendation) when they go to make the next Hajj (in compensation for the first one) lest they should repeat what they did before.

 If such a man is unable to slaughter a camel, then he may slaughter a cow. If he cannot afford it, then he may slaughter seven (7) sheep. And if he is even unable to do that, then he may estimate the value of the camel, and distribute food of that amount among the poor and needy people, so that every person receives one mudd. If he is unable to do so, then he should fast a day for each mudd thereof.